This article appeared in Yahoo! News. Read the full story here.

The drug industry and health officials are now racing to respond to the coronavirus outbreak as cases of COVID-19 mount, and the World Health Organization has declared it a pandemic.

There are more than 40 ongoing research efforts across the globe to develop a coronavirus vaccine, according to the World Health Organization.

Two vaccine candidates, for instance, have already started human testing in record timing. But it will still take at least a year to determine if any vaccine works against this virus.

Here’s is our list of the few vaccines that are undergoing human testing as well as other vaccine candidates that could become available in 2021.

The small biotech Moderna has leaped to the front of the race, with a vaccine candidate that’s being tested in people.

Moderna biotech pharma lab.
Moderna biotech pharma lab.

Healthy volunteers are now being enrolled in Washington state and Georgia to test the first potential coronavirus vaccine developed by Moderna.

The upstart biotech developed the experimental vaccine in record time, going from sequencing the virus to dosing a patient in roughly two months and says it can have a coronavirus vaccine ready for emergency use this fall.

Read more about how Moderna plans to have its vaccine ready so soon.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals is the second company to start testing a coronavirus vaccine in the US.

The first human trial of the vaccine from the biotech Moderna is already underway.
The first human trial of the vaccine from the biotech Moderna is already underway.

The company said on April 6 it has opened a trial for 40 healthy volunteers in Philadelphia and Kansas City, Missouri. Inovio expects early safety results by late summer and is aiming to produce 1 million doses by year’s end.